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Modulation of Neurotransmitters By Microbiome Bacteria

This article is not medical advice. You should seek the advice of your Primary Care Physician or an M.D. before starting any health related regimen.

I came across an excellent set of articles related to which biome bacteria modulate which neurotransmitters. I encourage you to explore the actual articles, beyond my very brief summary below:

"By leveraging animal models, several different pathways of communication have been identified along the “gut-brain-axis” including those driven by the immune system, the vagus nerve, or by modulation of neuroactive compounds by the microbiota. Of the latter, bacteria have been shown to produce and/or consume a wide range of mammalian neurotransmitters, including dopamine, norepinephrine, serotonin, or gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). Accumulating evidence in animals suggests that manipulation of these neurotransmitters by bacteria may have an impact in host physiology, and preliminary human studies are showing that microbiota-based interventions can also alter neurotransmitter levels." [1]

Common Dopamine Producing Bacteria [1,2,3,4]:

Bacillus subtilis

E Coli

Staphylococcus aureus

Klebsiella Pneumonia

Other Dopamine Producing Bacteria[1,2,3,4]:

Bacillus cereus, mycoids,

Morganella Morganni

Proteus Volgarus

Hafnia Alvei

Serratia marcescens

Common Serotonin Producing Bacteria [1,2,3,4]:

E Coli (K-12)

Klebsiella Pneumonia

Lactabacillus Lactis (cremoris)

Lactobacillus Plantarum

Morganella Morganii

Streptococus thermophilus

Noradrenaline Producing Bacteria[1,2,3,4]:

Bacillus subtilus, mycoides

E Coli

Proteus Volgarus

Serratia marcescens

Acetyl Choline Producing Bacteria[1,2,3,4]

Lactobacillus Plantarum

Gaba Producing Bacteria[1,2,3,4]

Bifidobacterium: adolescentis, angulatum, dentium, infantis

Lactobacillus: brevis, buchneri, plantarum, reuterri, rhamnosus, delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus

Monascus purpureus

Strep Thermophilus

As one assesses mood, cognitive function, and the ability to calm from too much glutamate (common in LH / ME CFS] , considering the above may be worthwhile. Rhamnosus GG has alone generated much study in addiction and in enabling conversion of glutamate to gaba; opiates and other substances like heroine temporarily produce gaba - and the withdrawl symptoms from these drugs are in part due to over stimulation from glutamate.[5]


  1. Neurotransmitter modulation by the gut microbiota. By Philip Strandwitza. Brain Res. Author manuscript; available in PMC 2019 Aug 15. Brain Res. 2018 Aug 15; 1693(Pt B): 128–133. doi10.1016/j.brainres.2018.03.015. PMCID: PMC6005194. NIHMSID: NIHMS953233. PMID: 29903615

  2. Clarke G, et al. The microbiome-gut-brain axis during early life regulates the hippocampal serotonergic system in a sex-dependent manner. Mol Psychiatry. 2013;18:666–73.

  3. Clarke G, et al. Minireview: Gut microbiota: the neglected endocrine organ. Mol Endocrinol. 2014;28:1221–38.

  4. Dhakal R, Bajpai VK, Baek KH. Production of gaba (gamma - Aminobutyric acid) by microorganisms: a review. Braz J Microbiol. 2012;43:1230–41.

  5. Therapeutic Anti-Depressant Potential of Microbial GABA Produced by Lactobacillus rhamnosus Strains for GABAergic Signaling Restoration and Inhibition of Addiction-Induced HPA Axis Hyperactivity. Fernanda-Marie Tette,Samuel K. Kwofie, and Michael D. Wilson. Curr Issues Mol Biol. 2022 Apr; 44(4): 1434–1451. Published online 2022 Mar 22. doi: 10.3390/cimb44040096. PMCID: PMC9164062. PMID: 35723354



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