Updated: Jan 25
Binders is a topic long studied in a few different ways. First, animal studies that often look at excretion of toxic compounds in the urine and feces. Next is far fewer human studies in excretion in humans of compounds. All urine based toxicity tests are excretion tests and do not necessarily represent body burden. The only body burden tests that don't involve biopsy (which is localized / not practical) are blood plasma tests for toxins that remain only in the blood and don't get stored in the body (benzene, as one example).