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Andrographis (AKA ParActin)

This article is not medical or healthcare advice. Before starting any health or medical related regimen seek the advice of your Primary Care Physician or an M.D.


Andrographis is not an herb that receives alot of attention or writeups in the world of chronic illness, or health matters, but its one of my favorites. It has been formulated and branded as ParActin in some supplement blends. However, there are some cautions involved [6, 7] related to lowering blood pressure, immune stimulation for auto immune folks:


But First a Warning...

Medicines that contain Andrographis paniculata require the following two warning statements[7]:

  • ‘Andrographis may cause allergic reactions in some people. If you have a severe reaction (such as anaphylaxis), stop use and seek immediate medical attention.’ (or words to that effect).

  • ‘Andrographis may cause taste disturbance including loss of taste. If you develop any adverse symptoms, stop use and seek medical advice.’ (or words to that effect) and allergic reactions.

  • Not enough research has been done on administration during pregnancy and breast feeding so play it safe and dont take it if this applies to you. There have been a few cases of allergic reactions to Andrographis in people allergic to the “daisy” family of plant  so be cautious if that applies to you.


Andrographis has been used for colds, sore throat, influenza, respiratory infections, sinusitis, UTI's, diarrhea, gut balancing. Most of pharmaceutical research has been done on the Andrographolide found in andrographis.


What does it do ? Both an Anti Inflammatory and Immune Stimulator [5]

Suppresses NOS2! [1]

Inhibits IL-6[2]

Inhibits TNFA[3]

Inhibits IL-1B [4]

Neuro protective against cognitive decline from LPS [8]

antiviral - details below (11)

antibacterial - details below (12)

antimalarial (13)

hepatoprotective (14)

anti-inflammatory (15)

platelet aggregation inhibiting (16,17)

anti-HIV

anti-allergic (18)

anti-histaminic properties and suppresses IL-2 (21, 22) and IL-12 (23).


AntiMicrobial Action (12)

Andrographis also has anti microbial activities against the following bacteria:

  • Streptococus

  • Staphylococus Aurus

  • E-Coli

  • Salmonella

  • Shigella

Resolved 88.3% of acute bacillary dysentery and 91.3% of acute gastroenteritis cases (29).


AntiViral

Antiviral activity against Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) (26) and HIV.


Increases Anti Oxidant Enzymes

Andrographis paniculata increases the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione-S-transferase and reduced glutathione. (19). Its also a free radical scavenger (20).


Liver Protection

As, or even more, effective than silymarin (active component of milk thistle) [24] in reference to damage by ethanol and hepatitis B(25). Renal protective against damage from ingestion of certain antibiotics (27).


Aside from being available as ParActin, which is standardized, various other brands have economical options like Solaray.


References

1. Andrographolide suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in macrophage and restores the vasoconstriction in rat aorta treated with lipopolysaccharide. W F Chiou 1J J LinC F Chen. Br J Pharmacol. . 1998 Sep;125(2):327-34. doi: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702073. PMID: 9786505. PMCID: PMC1565624. DOI: 10.1038/sj.bjp.0702073

2. Andrographolide, an herbal medicine, inhibits interleukin-6 expression and suppresses prostate cancer cell growth. Jae Yeon Chun 1Ramakumar Tummala, et al. . 2010 Aug;1(8):868-76.

doi: 10.1177/1947601910383416. PMID: 21442031. PMCID: PMC3063649.

3. Inhibition of TNF-α-Induced Inflammation by andrographolide via down-regulation of the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Haw-Wen Chen 1Ai-Hsuan LinHsing-Chin Chu, et al. J Nat Prod

. 2011 Nov 28;74(11):2408-13. doi: 10.1021/np200631v. Epub 2011 Oct 25.

PMID: 22026410. DOI: 10.1021/np200631v

4. Andrographolide mitigates IL‑1β‑induced human nucleus pulposus cells degeneration through the TLR4/MyD88/NF‑κB signaling pathway. Calabrese C, Berman SH, Babish JG, et al. Molecular Medicine Reports, December-2018Volume 18 Issue 6. Print ISSN: 1791-2997Online ISSN:1791-3004. October 25, 2018     https://doi.org/10.3892/mmr.2018.9599. Pages: 5427-5436

5. Extracts of Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f.) Nees Leaves Exert Anti-Gout Effects by Lowering Uric Acid Levels and Reducing Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Inflammation

Eldiza Puji Rahmi1* Endang Kumolosasi, et al. Front. Pharmacol., 10 January 2022. Sec. Ethnopharmacology. Volume 12 - 2021 | https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2021.787125

6. https://www.webmd.com/vitamins/ai/ingredientmono-973/andrographis7. Listed medicines containing Andrographis paniculata requiring warning statements. 27 July 2023. Government of Australia, Department of Health and Aged Care.

8. A standardised Andrographis paniculata Burm. Nees aqueous extract prevents Lipopolysaccharide-induced cognitive deficits through suppression of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress mediators. Dahiru Sani,a,1 Nasir I.O. KhatabJ Adv Res. 2019 Mar; 16: 87–97.

Published online 2018 Nov 30. doi: 10.1016/j.jare.2018.11.005. PMCID: PMC6412812

PMID: 30899592.

11. A phase I trial of andrographolide in HIV positive patients and normal volunteers. Phytotheraphy Research. 2000;14(5):333–338. 

12. Singha PK, Roy S, Dey S. Antimicrobial activity of Andrographis paniculata . Fitoterapia. 2003;74(7-8):692–694. 

13. Rahman NNNA, Furuta T, Kojima S, Takane K, Ali Mohd M. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 1999;64(3):249–254. 

14.  Trivedi NP, Rawal UM. Hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of Andrographis paniculata (Nees) in BHC induced liver damage in mice. Indian Journal of Experimental Biology. 2001;39(1):41–46

15. Shen YC, Chen CF, Chiou WF. Andrographolide prevents oxygen radical production by human neutrophils: possible mechanism(s) involved in its anti-inflammatory effect. British Journal of Pharmacology. 2002;135(2):399–406. 

16. Amroyan E, Gabrielian E, Panossian A, Wikman G, Wagner H. Inhibitory effect of andrographolide from Andrographis paniculata on PAF-induced platelet aggregation. Phytomedicine. 1999;6(1):27–31. [PubMed] [Google Scholar]

17. Lu WJ, Lee JJ, Chou DS, et al. A novel role of andrographolide, an NF-kappa B inhibitor, on inhibition of platelet activation: the pivotal mechanisms of endothelial nitric oxide synthase/cyclic GMP. Journal of Molecular Medicine. 2011;89(12):1263–1271. 

18. Xia YF, Ye BQ, Li YD, et al. Andrographolide attenuates inflammation by inhibition of NF-κB activation through covalent modification of reduced cysteine 62 of p 50. Journal of Immunology. 2004;173(6):4207–4217

19.  Verma N, Vinayak M. Antioxidant action of Andrographis paniculata on lymphoma. Molecular Biology Reports. 2008;35(4):535–540

20. Lin FL, Wu SJ, Lee SC, Ng LT. Antioxidant, antioedema and analgesic activities of Andrographis paniculata extracts and their active constituent andrographolide. Phytotherapy Research. 2009;23(7):958–964. 

21. Deng WL. Outline of current clinical and pharmacological research on Andrographis paniculata in China. Newsletters Chinese Herbal Medicine. 1978;10,:27–31. 

22. Iruretagoyena MI, Sepúlveda SE, Lezana JP, et al. Inhibition of nuclear factor-κB enhances the capacity of immature dendritic cells to induce antigen-specific tolerance in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. The Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics. 2006;318(1):59–67. 

23. Qin LH, Kong L, Shi GJ, Wang ZT, Ge BX. Andrographolide inhibits the production of TNF-α and interleukin-12 in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages: role of mitogen-activated protein kinases. Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin. 2006;29(2):220–224. 

24. Singha PK, Roy S, Dey S. Protective activity of andrographolide and arabinogalactan proteins from Andrographis paniculata Nees. against ethanol-induced toxicity in mice. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 2007;111(1):13–21. 

25 . Rajkumar JS, Sekar MG, Mitra SK. Safety and efficacy of oral HD-03/ES given for six months in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 2007;13(30):4103–4107

26. Tang LIC, Ling APK, Koh RY, Chye SM, Voon KGL. Screening of anti-dengue activity in methanolic extracts of medicinal plants. BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2012;12(3):1–10. 

 27. Singh P, Srivastava MM, Khemani LD. Renoprotective effects of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. f.) Nees in rats. Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences. 2009;114(3):136–139. 

28. Sattayasai J, Srisuwan S, Arkaravichien T, Aromdee C. Effects of andrographolide on sexual functions, vascular reactivity and serum testosterone level in rodents. Food and Chemical Toxicology. 2010;48(7):1934–1938

29. Chang, Hson-Mou, and Paul Pui-Hay But. Pharmacology and Applications of Chinese Materia Medica: (Volume I). 2014.

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